Saturday, 19 August 2017

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THE CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST THE SAVIOR

Address:  15, Volkhonka Street, Moscow

Design — 1994–2000
Realization — 1994–2000

 

The memorial Cathedral has been erected in 1839–1883 in honor of the Russian victory in Patriotic war of 1812 according to the project of the architect K. A. Ton in the Russian–Byzantine style. Sculptors A. V. Loganovsky, P. K. Clodt, N. A. Ramazanov, artists F. A. Bruni, G. I. Semiradsky, V. I. Surikov, K. E. Makovsky and others worked on sculptural and picturesque decoration of the Cathedral. A circular avenue where the first museum of Patriotic war of 1812 is sutuated has been established around the Cathedral. The Cathedral has been blown up on December 5, 1931.

The Cathedral of Christ the Savior was reconstructed with its historic look and dimensions, according to the traditions and cannons of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1994–2000. The Cathedral consists of three side–altars: the main (Central) side–altar for the sake of Transfiguration of Christ; the left one for the sake of the Icon of the Theotokos of Tikhvin; the right one for the sake of Alexy the Man of God.

This design was based on the preserved historical evidences and documents — drawings, pictures, descriptions etc. At the same time, the authors have introduced significant novelties, basically related to the organization of the under–cathedral space. The downward, stylobate part comprises the historical and cultural center, including the Holy Synod meeting hall, the Patriarch premises, the museum dedicated to the history of construction, demolition and restoration of the Cathedral, the Lower Church of the Transfiguration of Christ with reconstructed side–altars of the Alexeyevsky Monastery, which had been located at this place before, and a gallery for the sacred procession.

The Hall of Church Assemblies, which was created for the first time in history and has no analogues in Russian architecture and in the history of the church and secular art of building, is also situated there. It is organized as a space intended for carrying out councils of the Orthodox Church. At the same time, this hall is open for carrying out public and cultural activities.

The general parameters and minor height (9 m at maximum height) of the space where the Hall with 1500 seats and the foyer (85х55 m) are situated required visual extension of the Hall height. A membrane covering («shade») over spectator part and a system of small domes over the galleries and the foyer have been applied for this purpose. That made it possible to create a complicated visual environment of the auditorium.

Passage from the foyer to the hall is implemented through the ramps in the paradise gardens lit by natural light through the zenith lamps located in the stylobate plain. The picture of the natural sky together with the view of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior rising up and with greens of gardens creates and special emotional spirit. The general golden coloring of the hall severed by authors gave the effect of ease, lightness, zero gravity, an emotional elation. Authors have set and solved the task not of citing or transferring of stylistics of forms and details to modern architecture; but creation of the associative image comprehended from positions of modern times. This connection of spatial, functional, and canonic components was embodied in the solution of interiors of the Hall of Church Assemblies.

Technical and economic performance:

  • Cathedral height without cross — 100 m
  • Capacity — up to 15 000 people
  • Total structural volume of the cathedral — 221 000 m³
  • Total area of the cathedral — 3 980 m²
  • Total structural volume of stylobate part of the complex — 345 940 m³
  • Total area of stylobate part of the complex — 61 630 m²
  • Total structural volume of the complex — 566 940 m³
  • Total area of the complex — 65 610 m²
  • Total area of the lower church — 2 371 m²
Object category: Religious buildings